Capital letters, like$A$, indicate matrices.

Transposing a matrix$A$, of elements $[A]_{ij} = a_{ij}$ , is the operation which switches the row and column positions of each element:

$[A^t]_{ij} = a_{ji}$

**Transpose of the transpose**:$(A^t)^t = A$**Transpose of the sum**:$(A + B)^t = A^t + B^t$**Transpose of the product**:$(AB)^t = B^t A^t$

*Proofs** *

The first one follows straightly from definition.

The second one is straightforward just because the elements of$(A+B)^t$are the sums of elements in$A^t$and$B^t$.

The third one is easily proven using the fact that $[AB]_{ij} = \sum_k a_{ik} b_{kj}$*, *so that we can say $[(AB)^t]_{ij} = [AB]_{ji} = \sum_k a_{jk} b_{ki},$and $[B^t A^t]_{ij} = \sum_k b^t_{ik} a^t_{kj} = \sum_k b_{ki} a_{jk}$ , so the two things are the same.

: $M^2 = M$*IDEMPOTENT*

Given two matrices A and B (typically kernel and image, as this is used in computer vision),

their convolution is obtained via the multiplication of locationally similar entries and summing:

$\mathcal{C} = \sum_{i=0}^{i=} \sum_{j=1}^{j=} B_{ij} A_{n-in-j}$

This procedure is loosely related to mathematical convolution.

Given matrix M, its Frobenious norm is the square root of the sum of the squares of its elements.

$||M|| = \sqrt{\sum_{i,j} M_{ij}^2}$